نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 عضوهیات علمی
عنوان مقاله [English]
The present research has been done to recognize the relation between personality features and attachment styles with the level of risk-taking young Islamic Azad University (IAU) students, as well as the effect of dwelling place on their personality features and risk-taking. 120 students were selected as members of the sample, including 58 men and 62 women. Out of them 77 were indigenous and 43 people were not, with the average age of 22.22. Neo-FFI questionnaire, Hazan-Shaver questionnaire, and risk-taking questionnaire were administered to evaluate personality features, attachment styles, and risk taking respectively. The findings of research have been formulated in two parts: descriptive and inferential. In inferential part, ANOVA and multiple linear regressions were used. The results of regression imply that the quintuple dimensions of personality features, attachment style, sexuality, and dwelling place altogether determine 24 % of the youths total level of risk-taking. Among them, the sexuality, age, extraversion and agreeableness have a significant predictive effect on the youth total level of risk-taking.
Ainsworth, M.D. S. (1978). Patterns of Attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. London: The Hogarth Press and institute of psychoanalysis.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation, anxiety and anger. London. The Hogarth press and the Institute of psychoanalysis.
Campbell, A. (1999). Staying alive: Evolution, culture and women’s intrasexual aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 203-267.
CarlsonE. A. & Sroufe L, A, watters, E. (1977). attachment as an organizational construct child development 1977, 48, 1184.
Cassidy, J. (1988). Child – mother attachment and self in six – year old. Child Development. 39, 121 – 134.
Chapman, B. P., Duberstein, P. R., Sorensen, S., & Lyness, J. M. (2008). Gender differences in five factor model personality traits in an elderly cohort: Extension of robust and surprising findings to an older generation.Department of Psychiatry University of Rochester Medical Center Laboratory of Personality and Development.
Chen, L-H., Baker, S. P., Braver, E. R. and Li, G. (2000). Carrying passengers as a risk factor for crashes fatal to 16- and 17-year-old drivers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 1578-1582.
Clift, S. M., Wilkins, J. C., and Davidson, E. A. (1993). Impulsiveness, venturesomeness and sexual risk-taking among heterosexual GUM clinic attenders. Personality and Individual Differences, 15, 403-410.
Cohen,L, & Holliday.M.(1979) . Statistis for education physical education. Harper & Row publisher. London.
Colin, V. L. (1996). Human attachment. New York: McGraw – Hill.
Collins, N. I., & Read, S. J. (1990). Adult attachment, working models and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(4), 664 – 663.
Costa, P.T., & McCrae, R.R. (1992a). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 653-665.
Costa, P.T., & McCrae, R.R. (1992b). NEO-PI-R: Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R). Odessa, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Daly, M., and Wilson, M. (1988). Homicide. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter. Fetchenhauser, D. and Rohde, P.A. (2002). Evolutionary personality psychology and victimology – Sex differences in risk attitudes and short-term orientation and their relation to sex differences in victimizations. Evolution and Human Behavior, 23, 233-244
Easter, B. M. A., & Lamb, M. E. (1979). The relationship between quality of infant mother attachment and infant competence in initial encounters with peers. Child Development, 50, 380-387.
Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.
Feeney, J. A. (1999). Adult romantic attachment and couple relationships. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 355–377). New York: Guilford Press.
Fenny, I. A., & Noller, P. (1990). Attachment style as a predictor of adult romantic relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58 (2), 281.
Feldman. R. (1993). Understanding psychology. (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Flisher, A.J., Ziervogel, C.F., Charlton, D.O., Leger, P.H., and Roberston, B.A. (1993). Risk-taking behaviour of Cape Penninsula high-school students. 6. Road related behaviour. South African Medical Journal, 83, 486-490
Groos, R. D. (2000). Psychology: The science of mind and behavior.Cambridge: National Extension Colledge.
Grotevant. H. D, & Gooper, C. R. (1981). Assessing adolescent identity in the areas of occupation, religious, friendship, dating and sex roles: Manual for administration and coding of the interview. JSAS Catalogue of Selected Documents in Psychology, 11, 52.
Hazan, C. & Shaver, P. (1993). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment: Process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511.
Hazan, C. & shaver, P. (1998). Attachment as an organizational framework for research on close relationships. Psychological Inquiry, 5, 1–22.
Sadock, B.J., &KaplanH. (2004). Synopsis of psychiatry. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams andWilkins.
Klohnen, E.C., & Bera, S. (1998). Behavioral and experiential patterns of avoidantly and securely attachment women across adulthood: A 31- year longitudinal perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 211.
Lippa, R. A. (2008). Sex differences in personality traits and gender-related occupational preferences across 53 nations: Testing evolutionary and social environmental theories. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(3), 619-636.
Loynes, C. (1995). Focus on risk and safety. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 12, 4.
Poppen, P.J. (1995). Gender and patterns of sexual risk taking in college students. Sex Roles, 32, 545-55.
Sadock, B.J., &KaplanH. (2004). Synopsis of psychiatry. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams andWilkins
Simpson, J.A. (1990). Influence of attachment style on romantic relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 434-446.
Sroufe L, A, watters, E. (1977). attachment as an organizational construct child development 1977, 48, 1184.
Toman, W. (1993). Family constellation: Its effects on personality and social behavior (4th ed.). New York: Springer Publishing.
Turner, C., & McClure, R. (2003). Age and gender differences in risk-taking behavior as an explanation for high incidence of motor vehicle crashes as a driver in young males. Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 10, 123–130.
Wilson, M., Daly, M., Gordon, S., and Pratt, A. (1996). Sex differences in valuations of the environment. Population and Environment, 18, 143-159.
Zuckerman, M., & Neeb, M. (1980). Demographic influences in Sensation Seeking and expressions of Sensation Seeking in religion, smoking, and driving habits. Personality and Individual Differences, 1, 197-206.